1. 2016年成人高考高起點英語復習:形容詞和副詞

               形容詞和副詞在語法結構中主要用于比較級和*高級。形容詞和副詞的構成形式基本上一樣,它們的形式與單音節、雙音節和多音節有關,當然還有其特殊形式。形容詞和副詞比較級的基本用法分為同級比較、比較級和*高級三種形式。但這三種形式都有它們特殊的表達方式以及它們的慣用法。對以下要點大家須一一掌握。

                形容詞比較級和*高級的形式

                一、形容詞比較級和*高級的構成

                形容詞的比較級和*高級變化形式規則如下

                構 成 法 原 級 比 較 級 * 高 級

                ① 一般單音節詞末尾加er 和 est strong stronger strongest

                ② 單音節詞如果以e結尾,只加r 和st strange stranger strangest

                ③ 閉音節單音節詞如末尾只有 一個輔音字母,

                須先雙寫這個輔音字母,再加er和est sad

                big

                hot sadder

                bigger

                hotter saddest

                biggest

                hottest

                ④ 少數以y,er(或ure),ow,ble結尾的雙音節詞,

                末尾加er和est(以y結尾的詞,如y前是輔音字母,

                把y變成i,再加er和est,以e結尾的詞仍

                只加r和st) angry

                clever

                narrow

                noble angrier

                cleverer

                narrower

                nobler angrest

                cleverest

                narrowest

                noblest

                ⑤ 其他雙音節和多音節詞都在前面加單詞more和most different more

                different most

                different

                二、形容詞比較級或*高級的特殊形式:

                1. 三個或三個以上音節的形容詞只能加more和most

                只能說 more beautiful而不能說beautifuller; 只能說the most beautiful而不能說beautifullest.

                但是,以形容前綴un結尾的三音節形容詞不適合上述情況,如unhappy,untidy,我們可以說:unhappier→unhappiest, untidier→untidiest

                2. 由ING分詞和ED分詞演變過來的形容詞(包括不規則動詞如know→known)只能加more或most來表示它們的比較級和*高級

                more(most) striking, more(most) interesting, more(most) wounded, more(most)worn等。

                3. 英語里有些形容詞由于其詞義而不可能有比較級形式

                absolute fatal main right universal

                chief final naked simulta- utter

                entire foremost perfect neous vital

                eternal inevitable possible sufficient whole

                excellent infinite primary supreme wooden

                三、不規則形容詞的比較級和*高級形式

                good

                well better best

                bad

                ill worse worst

                many

                much more most

                little

                few less least

                far farther farthest

                further furthest

                副詞比較級和*高級的形式

                副詞比較級和*高級的變化形式與形容詞基本上一樣

                一般 副詞

                hard→harder →hardest

                fast→faster →fastest

                late→later →latest

                early→earlier →earliest

                特殊 副詞

                well →better →best

                much →more →most

                badly →worse →worst

                little →less →least 但是,開放類副詞即以后綴ly結尾的副詞不能像形容詞那樣加er或est,如

                quickly →more quickly →most quickly quietly →more quietly →most quietly

                [注]: early中的ly不是后綴,故可以把y變i再加er和est

                一、原級比較的基本用法

                1. 原級比較由“as+形容詞或副詞(或再加名詞或短語)+as ”構成“原級相同”比較句,表示兩者比較;其否定式,即“程度不及”比較句型為“not so(as) +形容詞或副詞+as”,而且as…as結構前可用just, almost, nearly, quite等表示程度的詞修飾

                2. “as (so)+名詞+as+名詞”進行名詞比較,這時一般情況下有一個表示原級的比較詞,但如果第*名詞前出現了形容詞修飾該詞或出現副詞修飾謂語,應當用so而不用as

                二、比較級

                1. 比較級由“形容詞(副詞)比較級+than+…,”構成表示在兩者中間一方比另一方“更加…”。連詞than后可接句子,也可接名詞、代詞、名詞短語、介詞短語、動詞、動詞不定式、ING結構和ED結構,有時也可省去than.

                2. 注意than前后兩項相比較的人或事物要一致

                三、*高級

                1. *高級用于三者以上比較,形容詞的結構形式是“定冠詞+形容詞*高級+名詞+表示范圍的短語或從句”(如all, of all, of the tree, in the world, that has ever taken place等)

                2. 副詞的*高級與形容詞*高級的區別在于*高級前沒有定冠詞the

                四、同步練習

                1) Walking briskly for thirty minutes will burn as many calories as .

                [A] to run for fifteen minutes

                [B] running for fifteen minutes

                [C] you run for fifteen minutes

                [D] fifteenminute walking

                解析:B為正確答案。

                2) The gorilla(大猩猩), while [A] not quite as curious than [B] the chimpanzee(黑猩猩), shows more persistence [C] and memory retention(記憶力) in solving [D] a problem.

                解析:B錯。改為 as ,和前面的as和形容詞原形curious 一起構成同程度比較。

                3) Alaska is twice [A] as larger [B] as [C] the next largest [D] state, Texas.

                解析:B錯。 改為as large.

                4) Thomas Jefferson's achievements as an architect rival his contributions a politician.

                [A] such [B] more [C] as [D] than

                解析:C對。動詞rival(勝過、匹敵)前后是兩個相比較的成分achievements(成果)和 contributions(貢獻),由于前面的名詞后出現了短語 as an architect,故空白處也應用as,使前后對比成分一致。

                5) I should say Henry is not much a writer as a reporter.

                [A] that [B] so [C] this [D] as

                解析:B為正確答案。

                6) Natural mica(云母) of [A] a superior [B] quality is cheapest [C] to obtain than synthetic [D] mica.

                解析:C錯。應改為比較級cheaper.比較級后并不一定跟接連詞than,有時在其間有名詞或名詞短語(被形容詞所修飾),介詞短語,不定式或其他成分隔開。

                7) She is older than .

                [A] any other girl in the group [B] any girl in the group

                [C] all girls in the group [D] you and me as well as the group

                解析:A為正確答案。“She”作為單個不能跟全組比(C和D不對),也不能跟全組所有相比,因為“她”也是其中一員,自然“她”不能跟自己相比。這里“She”比較的是“這組中的任何一個”,所以A對。

                8) Josephine McCrackin joined [A] the “Santa Cruz Sentinel” in 1905 and, until her death fifteen years late [B] , remained [C] active in journalistic [D] work.

                解析:B錯。應改為比較級later,因此處實為與1905年相比晚15年,故應使用比較級。

                9) The purpose of the research had a more important meaning for them than .

                [A] ours [B] with us [C] for ours it had [D] it did for us

                解析:D為正確答案。

                10) Sound travels air.

                [A] faster through water than through [B] faster than through water and

                [C] through water faster and[D] where it is faster through water than through

                解析:A為正確答案。

                11) Gerbrand von den Feckhout, one of Rembrand's pupils, followed [A] the style of his teacher so implicitly that [B] his paintings [C] are sometimes confused with his master [D] .

                解析:D錯。 改為his master's.

                12) The more [A] fearsome of all the [B] animals in [C] the Western [D] Hemisphere is the grizzly bear.

                解析:A錯。 改為most.

                13) Of all economic [A] problems, inflation continues to be [B] a [C] most significant in its daily impact on [D] people and business.

                解析:C錯。改為the, significant是多音節形容詞,在此處應用*高級形式(在前面加 the most),注意句中的“of all… ”。

                14) ,the most familiar to general public is the criminal jurisdiction.

                [A] All the activities [B] The activities

                [C] Of all the activities [D] It is the activities

                解析:C為正確答案。本句空白處缺狀語,A和B全為名詞短語,不符合條件;D為句子,和空白后面的句子沒有任何聯系,故亦應排除。只有C正確,和后面的*高級the most familiar前后呼應。


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